Basic concepts: Concepts of resistance, inductance, capacitance, and various factors affecting them. Concepts of current, voltage, power, energy and their units.
AC Fundamentals : Instantaneous, peak, R.M.S. and average values of alternating waves, Representation of sinusoidal wave form, simple series and parallel AC Circuits consisting of R.L. and C, Resonance, Tank Circuit. Poly Phase system– star and delta connection, 3 phase power, DC and sinusoidal response of R- Land R -C circuit. Measurement and measuring instruments: Measurement of power (1 phase and 3 phase, both active and re-active) and energy, 2 wattmeter method of 3 phase power measurement. Measurement of frequency and phaseangle. Ammeter and voltmeter (both moving oil and moving iron type), extension of range wattmeter, Multimeters, Megger, Energy meter AC Bridges. Use of CRO, Signal Generator, CT, PT and their uses. Earth Fault detection.
Electrical Machines: (a) D.C. Machine– Construction, Basic Principles of D.C. motors and generators, their characteristics, speed control and starting of D.C. Motors. Method of braking motor, Losses and efficiency of D.C. Machines. (b) 1 phase and 3 phase transformers– Construction, Principles of operation, equivalent circuit, voltage regulation, O.C. and S.C. Tests, Losses and efficiency. Effect of voltage, frequency and wave form on losses. Parallel operation of 1 phase /3 phase transformers. Auto transformers. (c) 3 phase induction motors, rotating magnetic field, principle of operation, equivalent circuit, torque-speed characteristics, starting and speed control of 3 phase induction motors. Methods of braking, effect of voltage and frequency variation on torque speed characteristics.
Fractional Kilowatt Motors and Single Phase Induction Motors : Characteristics and applications.
Synchronous Machines - Generation of 3- phase e.m.f. armature reaction, voltage regulation, parallel operation of two alternators, synchronizing, control of active and reactive power. Starting and applications of synchronous motors.
Generation, Transmission and Distribution– Different types of power stations, Load factor, diversity factor, demand factor, cost of generation, inter-connection of power sta tions. Power factor improvement, various types of tariffs, types of faults, short circuit current for symmetrical faults. Switchgears–rating of circuit breakers, Principles of arc extinction by oil and air, H.R.C. Fuses, Protection against earth leakage / over current, etc. Buchholtz relay, Merz-Price system of protection of generators & transformers, protection of feeders and bus bars. Lightning arresters, various transmission and distribution system, comparison of conductor materials, efficiency of different system. Cable–Different type of cables, cable rating and derating factor.
Estimation and costing: Estimation of lighting scheme, electric installation of machines and relevant IE rules. Earthing practices and IE Rules.
Utilization of Electrical Energy: Illumination, Electric heating, Electric welding, Electroplating, Electric drives and motors. Basic Electronics : Working of various electronic devices e.g. P N Junction diodes, Transistors (NPN and PNP type), BJT and JFET. Simple circuits using these devices.
Definition of stored energy & internal energy, 1st Law of Thermodynamics of cyclic process, Non Flow Energy Equation, Flow Energy & Definition of Enthalpy, Conditions for Steady State Steady Flow; Steady State Ste ady Flow Energy Equation.
Definition of Sink, Source Reservoir of Heat, Heat Engine, Heat Pump & Refrigerator; Thermal Efficiency of Heat Engines & co- efficient of performance of Refrigerators, Kelvin–Planck & Clausius Statements of 2ndLaw of Thermodynamics, Absolute or Thermodynamic Scale of temperature, Clausius Integral, Entropy, Entropy change calculation of ideal gas processes. Carnot Cycle & Carnot Efficiency, PMM-2; definition & its impossibility. Air standard Cycles for IC engines: Otto cycle; plot on P-V, T-S Planes; Thermal Efficiency, Diesel Cycle; Plot on P- V, T-S planes; Thermal efficiency. IC Engine Performance, IC Engine Combustion, IC Engine Cooling & Lubrication. Rankine cycle of steam: Simple Rankine cycle plot on P- V, T- S, h-s planes, Rankine cycle efficiency with & without pump work. Boilers; Classification; Specification;
Fire Tube & Water Tube Boilers.Air Compressors & their cycles; Refrigeration cycles; Principle of a R efrigeraton Plant; Nozzles & Steam Turbines Fluid Mechanics & Machinery
ideal & real fluids, Newton‘s law of viscosity, Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids, compressible and incompressible fluids.
Pressure at a point.Measurement of Fluid Pressure: Manometers, U-tube, Inclined tube. Fluid Kinematics: Stream line, laminar & turbulent flow, external & internal flow, continuity equation.
Bernoulli‘s equation, Totalhead; Velocity head; Pressure head; Application of Bernoulli‘s equitation. Measurement of Flow rate Basic Principles: Venturimeter, Pilot tube, Orifice meter. Hydraulic Turbines: Classifications, Principles. Centrifugal Pumps: Classifications, Principles, Performance.
mild steal & alloy steel, Heat treatment of steel, Welding–Arc Welding, Gas Welding, Resistance Welding, Special Welding Techniques i.e. TIG, MIG, etc. (Brazing & Soldering), Welding Defects & Testing; NDT, Foundry & Casting–methods, defects, different casting processes, Forging, Extrusion, etc, Metal cutting principles, cutting tools, Basic Principles of machining with (i) Lathe (ii) Milling (iii) Drilling (iv) Shaping (v) Grinding, Machines, tools & manufacturing processes.
Physical and Chemical properties, classification, standard tests, uses and manufacture/quarrying of materials e.g. building stones, silicate based materials, cement (Portland), asbestos products, timber and wood based products, laminates, bituminous materials, paints, varnishes.
estimate, glossary of technical terms, analysis of rates, methodsand unit of measurement, Items of work–earthwork, Brick work (Modular & Traditional bricks), RCC work, Shuttering, Timber work, Painting, Flooring, Plastering. Boundary wall, Brick building, Water Tank, Septic tank, Bar bending schedule, Centre line method, Mid -section formula, Trapezodial formula, Simpson‘s rule. Cost estimate of Septic tank, flexible pavements, Tube well, isolates and combined footings, Steel Truss, Piles and pile-caps. Valuation–Value and cost, scrap value, salvage value, assessed value, sinking fund, depreciation and obsolescence, methods of valuation.
Principles of surveying, measurement of distance, chain surveying, working of prismatic compass, compass traversing, bearings, local attraction, plane table surveying, theodolite traversing, adjustment of theodolite, Levelling, Definition of terms used in levelling, contouring, curvature and refraction corrections, temporary and permanent adjustments of dumpy level, methods of contouring, uses of contour map, tachometric survey, curve setting, earth work calculation, advanced surveying equipment.
Origin of soil, phase diagram, Definitions-void ratio, porosity, degree of saturation, water content, specific gravity of soil grains, unit weights, density index and interrelationship of different parameters, Grain size distribution curves and their uses. Index properties of soils, Atterberg‘s limits, ISI soil classification and plasticity chart. Permeability of soil, coefficient of permeability, determination of coefficient of permeability, Unconfined and confined a quifers, effective stress, quick sand, consolidation of soils, Principles of consolidation, degree of consolidation, pre- consolidation pressure, normally consolidated soil, e-log p curve, computation of ultimate settlement. Shear strength of soils, direct shear test, Vane shear test, Triaxial test. Soil compaction, Laboratory compaction test, Maximum dry density and optimum moisture content, earth pressure theories, active and passive earth pressures, Bearing capacity of soils, plate load test, standard p enetration test.
Fluid properties, hydrostatics, measurements of flow, Bernoulli‘s theorem and itsapplication, flow through pipes, flow in open channels, weirs, flumes, spillways, pumps and turbines
Definition, necessity, benefits, 2II effects of irrigation, types and methods of irrigation, Hydrology– Measurement of rainfall, run off coefficient, rain gauge, losses from precipitation–evaporation, infiltration, etc. Water requirement of crops, duty, delta and bas e period, Kharif and Rabi Crops, Command area, Time factor, Crop ratio, Overlap allowance, Irrigation efficiencies. Different type of canals, types of canal irrigation, loss of water in canals. Canal lining– types and advantages. Shallow and deep to wells, yield from a well. Weir and barrage, Failure of weirs and permeable foundation, Slit and Scour, Kennedy‘s theory of critical velocity. Lacey‘s theory of uniform flow. Definition of flood, causes and effects, methods of flood control, water logging ,preventive measure. Land reclamation, Characteristics of affecting fertility of soils, purposes, methods, description of land and reclamation processes. Major irrigation projects in India.
Highway Engineering– cross sectional elements, geometric design, types of pavements, pavement materials– aggregates and bitumen, different tests, Design of flexible and rigid pavements– Water Bound Macadam (WBM) and Wet Mix Macadam (WMM), Gravel Road, Bituminous construction, Rigid pavement joint, pavement maintenance, Highway drainage, Railway Engineering - Components of permanent way– sleepers, ballast, fixtures and fastening, track geometry, points and crossings, track junction, stations and yards. Traffic Engineering Different tr ffic survey, speed -flow -density and their interrelationships, intersections and interchanges, traffic signals, traffic operation, traffic signs and markings, road safety.
Quality of water, source of water supply, purification of water, distribution of water, need of sanitation, sewerage systems, circular sewer, oval sewer, sewer appurtenances, sewage treatments. Surface water drainage. Solid waste management –types, effects, engineered management system. Air pollution–pollutants, causes, effects, control. Noise pollution–cause, health effects, control.
Elasticity constants, types of beams– determinate and indeterminate, bending moment and shear force diagrams of simply supported, cantilever and over hangingbeams. Moment of area and moment of inertia for rectangular & circular sections, bending moment and shear stress fortee, channel and compound sections, chimneys, dams and retaining walls, eccentric loads, slope deflection of simply supported and cantilever beams, critical load and columns, Torsion of circular section.
Properties, Advantages and uses of concrete, cement aggregates, importance of water quality, water cement ratio, workability, mix design, storage, batching, mixing, placement, compaction, finishing and curing of concrete, quality control of concrete, hot weather and cold weather concreting, repair and maintenance of concrete structures.
RCC beams- flexural strength, shear strength, bond strength, design of singly reinforced and double reinforced beams, cantilever beams. T -beams, lintels. One way and two way slabs, isolated footings. Reinforced brick works, columns, staircases, retain ing wall, water tanks (RCC design questions may be based on both Limit State and Working Stress methods).
Steel design and construction of steel columns, beams roof trusses plate girders.
Polytechnic Diploma runs over a 6 Month period with a total cost of Rs. 25,000.